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Journal of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine 2007;28(4):292-301.
Published online April 10, 2007.
Social Support, Self-concept and Self-efficacy as Correlates of Adolescents' Physical Activity and Eating Habits.
Dong Hee Kim, In Soon Kang, Sangyeoup Lee
1School of Nursing & Midwifery, Flinders University, Australia.
2Department of Nursing, Pusan National University, Korea.
3Department of Family Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital and Medical Education Unit, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan, Korea. saylee@pnu.edu
Abstract
Background
Despite growing knowledge of the importance of the management of diet and physical activity in the prevention of obesity in adolescence, a better understanding of social psychological influences could assist efforts in family, school and community settings. Methods: Among the 3,653 adolescents who were randomly selected from seven separate school districts in Busan, 2,938 (83.9%) completed the questionnaire. The students who agreed to participate in this study were given a questionnaire which included social support as the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale, self-efficacy as the physical self-efficacy questionnaire, self-concept as the Song and Hattie Test, physical activity as a Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and eating habits as the Harris questionnaire. Results: The support from parents, teachers, classmates, close friends and other people in the community predicted the level of adolescents' self-concept and physical activity, while only the support from teachers and other people in the community predicted adolescents' dietary self-efficacy. Adolescents' self-concept and physical activity self-efficacy significantly predicted the level of physical activity. Self-concept and dietary self-efficacy also predicted healthier eating habits. Only the support from close friends predicted adolescents' healthy eating habits. The support from parents, teachers, close friends, classmates and other people in the community predicted the level of physical activity through increasing the level of self- concept or physical activity self-concept. Conclusion: Although adolescents' behavior are ultimately individualized, they are formed through cognitive processes which are affected by social support. These social levels, therefore, should be supportive of adolescents' physical activity and healthier eating habits by providing frequent support and encouragement to establish positive self-concept and self-efficacy.
Key Words: social support, self-concept, self-efficacy, physical activity, eating habits
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